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# [Frama-c-discuss] loop invariant and side effects

• Subject: [Frama-c-discuss] loop invariant and side effects
• From: Christoph.Weber at first.fraunhofer.de (Christoph Weber)
• Date: Wed, 28 Jan 2009 13:35:07 +0100

```        Hello,

I am exploring the problems with loop invariants and expressions with side effects such as

while(++i != ...).

I would like to know, what has to be modified in the following algorithm:

/*@

requires 0 <= length;

requires \valid_range(a, 0, length-1);

assigns \nothing;

ensures 0 <= \result <= length;

ensures \forall int i; 0 <= i < length ==> a[i] <= a[\result];

ensures \result != length <==> \exists int i; 0 <= i < length && a[i] == a[\result];

*/

int max_element_array (int* a, int length )

{

int i = 0;

int largest = i;

if (i == length) return length;

/*@

loop invariant 0 <= i < length;

loop invariant 0 <= largest < length;

loop invariant \forall integer k;

0 <= k < i ==> a[k] <= a[largest];

*/

while (++i != length ){

if (a[largest] < a[i])

largest = i;

}

return largest;

}

If I rewite the loop and the annotation in a way, that i is iterated befor the loop and after each iteration, the proof is no problem.

But with the nested incrementation I cannot preserve the loop invariant.

Cheers,

Christoph
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