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# [Frama-c-discuss] *p and p[0]

```Hi,

I cannot comment on the issue *p vs p[0] but I would like to refer to our
treatment of max_seq and the
slightly more general max_element algorithm in our "ACSL by Example"
tutorial (Sections 3.7 and 3.8 in

Here max_element was completely verified using alt-ergo, Z3, CVC3, Yices,
and Simplify.

Regards

Jens

-----Original Message-----
From: frama-c-discuss-bounces at lists.gforge.inria.fr on behalf of Pascal Cuoq
Sent: Thu 7/8/2010 12:08 AM
To: Frama-C public discussion
Subject: [Frama-c-discuss] *p and p[0]

Hello all,

working with the example from chapter 6 in the ACSL mini-tutorial,
I arrived (after what I believe are changes that make it simpler to
understand for both provers and students) at:

/*@ requires n > 0;
requires \valid(p+ (0..n-1));
assigns \nothing;
ensures \forall int i;
0 <= i <= n-1 ==> \result >= p[i];
ensures \exists int e;
0 <= e <= n-1 && \result == p[e];
*/
int max_seq(int* p, int n)
{
int res = *p;
/*@
loop invariant \forall integer j ;
(0 <= j < i) ==> (res >= p[j]) ;
loop invariant 0 <= i <= n;
loop invariant \exists integer j ;
(0 <= j <= n-1) && (res == p[j]) ;
loop variant n-i ;
*/
for(int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
if (res < p[i]) { res = p[i]; }
}
return res;
}

Good news! Almost everything is proved (alt-ergo 0.91)
And what is not proved such as the establishment
of the invariant with the existential quantifier is a
good opportunity to explain how these are usually
difficult for automatic provers to handle.

Then as a last change to make the source code more
readable, I changed the *p to p[0] in the first line of
the function.

And then, better news! Everything is proved now.
I didn't even know that it was possible to distinguish
between *p and p[0] after normalization by CIL.

So my questions are:

- are the proof obligations generated when the program
uses *p provable (sorry for this naive question but I only
have alt-ergo for technical reasons)?

- should one of the various translations between C and
the proof obligations have the same results whether
*p or p[0] is used, or would that be likely to cause
more issues than it solves?

Pascal

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